Thursday, February 26, 2015

19th Century Perforated Paper Craft

As a spring filled with wedding planning, craft show prepping, and fiance return approaches, I find myself procrastinating. Sure, I should be crafting or cleaning. I could also just as easily research another topic for a blog post. One brings me great joy. The other, cat hair. What do you think I chose?
Cat hair can lead to moments of self-reflection

I did not originally think of punched paper as an area of research. Periodically Glenna Jo Christen has poked my shoulder, repeating the phrase "punched paper" as I work on my many projects. This has gone on for some months (the shoulder poking), until finally I buckled down to figure out just what she meant.

What I found was astonishing! So many little crafty items, from bible markers to memorial samplers. If you recall, I already treated myself to a fangirl Berlin woolwork post a few months ago. Now I have found a way to apply that research to a medium other than cloth.

Just as with my other topics of research, I attempted to find photographic, textual, and original documentation. In terms of punch paper projects, I could find no photographic evidence such as carte de visites or daguerrotypes. I'm not surprised by this. Such small work would hardly show up. So if anyone finds any, please send it my way! Otherwise, I will continue with the textual and original documentation, which there seems to be in abundance.

I have found an excellent piece written by Claudia Dutcher that walks the reader through different decades of perforated paper crafts. Please read it here, though I will include a bit of the information in the following paragraphs. Claudia also has a shop, which I highly recommend as well!
Needlework on perforated paper began in the 1840's. With the careful skill and ingenuity of the ladies, these included bookmarks, needlebooks, and even a sewing basket. Over time they became very elaborate! Themes were often religious with memorial motifs or sayings. Animals, flowers, was very reminiscent of the Berlin woolwork and cross stitchery of the time. Eventually magazines carried counted patterns for the paper, though many people still completed the project freehand. 

Generally the projects are very small with 18-24 holes per inch. Most seem to be completed on white paper, as all but one of Claudia's examples are in that color (the other? Pink!). Bookmarks were often finished with a silk ribbon stitched/pasted to the back. Her article includes many pictures of originals, all from her personal collection. I am humbled by her dedication to the craft, and I strongly encourage you to look at it before continuing on my post!

Textual Documentation
While Claudia's article was perfect for placing punched paper needlework to the Civil War era, I would like to include a bit of my own research from other sources. One can never have too much documentation!

Contributions to Fancy Fairs, Godey's Lady's Book, August 1855
Book-markers , with mottoes, scriptural or friendly, are always popular and saleable articles. Very pretty perforated cards, with fancy borders, and to be worked in silk or beads, can now be procured anywhere. Berlin patterns of large size, for Church Bibles and Prayer Books, are certainly handsomer in beads than anything, but care must be taken in selecting the shades. Seed beads are proper for this work, and can be procured in as perfect shades as wools, with the additional advantage of never fading, as silks and wools certainly do. To work the design in beads, and ground it in white beads, has the richest possible effect. The back should be lined with sarsnet ribbon, on which an end long enough for the book must also be left.

The American Girl's Book, 1857

Nothing Finished, Godey's Lady's Book, May 1860
I ONCE had the curiosity to look into a little girl's work-box. And what do you suppose I found? Well, in the first place, I found a “bead purse,” about half done; there was, however, no prospect of its ever being finished, for the needles were out, and the silk upon the spools all tangled and drawn into a complete wisp. Laying this aside, I took up a nice piece of perforated paper , upon which was wrought one lid of a Bible, and beneath it the words, “I love,” but what she loved was left for me to conjecture.
Der Bazar 1860

La Mode Illustree, 1861

Prayer-Book Marcher, Godey's Lady's Book, December 1861
Lesezeichen, 1862
Der Bazar 1862

Directions for Book-Marker, Godey's Lady's Book, September 1862
TAKE fine perforated card-board, and cut the cross any size you wish, cutting through the holes so as to leave the little scalloped edge. The next layer of paper should be exactly one hole smaller than the first, cut in the same way. Successive layers of paper in the same way, until the last, which should be without any hole in the middle. These layers of paper must be gummed together with very fine mucilage, using a very small brush.

Bible Markers, Godey's Lady's Book, July 1865

Materials.— reel Cotton No. 40. Finely perforated cardboard; 2 strings of fine seed pearls; 1 1/2 yard of purple, watered, or stout sarcenet ribbon.

For the long cross, which is composed of 3 separate crosses. Cut out in perforated board the cross, the same size as in engraving. Then 2 others, each a size less. On the smallest work the pearls. Then sew this beaded cross on to the next-sized cross; then on to the largest. Double up the end of the ribbon so as to hide it under the transverse part of the cross. Now sew the latter on to the ribbon. Cut out 3 other crosses. Place one on the other, and sew on to the back.

The mediaeval cross is of one piece of board only. Cut it to the size of the engraving. Pearl it, and sew as directed for the largest cross.

Needless to say (but I'll say it anyway), there are MANY examples of punched paper in periodicals of the time, though they are mostly religious. I must apologize for my lack of German and French! Lesezeichen and signet are now my new favorite words! On a more serious note, if you are adept of either of these languages and find other examples you'd like to see here, please message me.

Surviving Originals
The DAR Museum online offers a beautiful collection of perforated paper crafts dated from the 19th century. You can find them here; do be warned, clicking through the gallery will cause you to suffer from a serious case of I-WANT-IT. And I'm sorry, some of these are for sale too! Here are a few other examples I have found:

As many originals are freehand, it is difficult to date them. A mother's design from 1858 could be redone in a daughter's style in 1874. Women used different colors than the ones they saw in magazines too. My untrained eye can't necessarily pin them to a year; perhaps over time I will gain that skill!

I am certainly not the first to approach this topic. From what I understand, the ladies at the Athenaeum have learned the art of punched paper, as found in this thread on The Sewing Academy. Also, The Civilian Symposium (as The Ladies and Gentlemen conference) has featured Carol Garratano's workshop on the cutting designs of punched paper, but the new site does not feature an archive so I cannot link to the information.

As I was still in the procrastination mood, I decided to give these a try. The first was based on the original from La Mode Illustree, 1861, though I can't find the exact source online for the others (just the charts):

They were incredibly fun to do and easy to transport, as they could lie completely flat to fit in my purse. Since they were not fabric I didn't need an embroidery hoop...much fewer mistakes! You'll notice too that I made adjustments that worked for me, color changes or additions. I can imagine the 19th century woman doing the same. Perhaps she liked green better than pink or maybe the anchor needed a flower next to it. These little differences make each piece so unique!

If you're interested in making your own, I do sell an easier-to-read cross pattern of the cross in my shop here. It's a word document, so you can print it or save it to the computer. Otherwise, bless your eyes! I found the 20 count paper at Tokens and Trifles and used DMC floss and a very small tapestry needle included with the package. My ribbon is 100% silk, lightly pasted to the back. 

I'd like to see if you do a project using perforated paper. Please post your link below! I will eventually add these religious lovelies or others to my shop; I want to make a scissors case/needlebook too. Expect future posts about punched paper!



Thursday, February 19, 2015

19th Century Technique: Piqué

Here I go again! I'm in the middle of several blog posts about different topics...and then BAM! I really want to learn about piqué. I dream of the stuff. Seriously. So without too much of an introduction (because I am seriously running out of winter break time to write this...), here is what I found!

Dating back to the 18th century, piqué work was introduced to England by Hugenot refugees (Victorian Jewlery). It became popular in the early 19th century, but really took off from 1850 to 1870. Pieces were hand made before the process became industrialized, and the mass production in the 1870s led to a lack of quality. The style fell out of favor after that. 

I personally had no idea how piqué works. This took a bit of research, since I believe that in order to understand the jewelry I need to know a bit about the process.

Here is where I get sad. Piqué is just a technique, so it can be found on many materials, including gutta percha and ivory. But the overwhelmingly used material was the shell of the hawksbill turtle. The production of such jewelry nearly led to the extinction of the entire species, so in 1970 the trade of turtle shell was abolished worldwide under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. These little guys are now a critically endangered species, with only about 15,000 nesting females left in the world. You can actually adopt a turtle here

But for the jewelry that already exists in antique trade...motifs include stars, dots, stripes, flowers, and diamonds; I have found these be typical of the Etruscan revival of the 19th century. The naturalistic themes are common in jewelry of this time period. 

Photographic Documentation
This moment rather reminds me of the great snake incident of 2014. And by that, I mean that one blog post when I strained my eyes looking for snakes in original images. Based on the surviving originals, the details are so fine that it would be hard to tell if pique was used. Also, the tortoiseshell will appear black in the image. So really I might be giving up too early, but if someone has a cdv or daguerreotype with obvious pique jewelry, please send it my way. My eyes thank you!

Textual Documentation
I actually found no mention of the word "piqué" in the context of jewelry. Instead I found references to "gold inlay" and more mentions of tortoise than I can count. 

Godey's Lady's Book, Peculiarities of English Advertising, May 1855
The following appeared in a provincial paper in Ireland, a few years since: "Missing from Killarney, Jane O'Fogarty; she had in her arms two babies and a Guernsey cow— all black, with red hair and tortoise -shell combs behind her ears and large spots all down her back, which squints awfully." Here, indeed, is inextricable confusion between the cow and the delinquent.

Godey's Lady's Book, Tortoise-Shell, 1858
THINK of the following, ladies, when you are handling your tortoise -shell combs:-
What is called time tortoise -shell is not, as is generally supposed, the bony covering or shield of the turtle, but only the scales which cover it. These are thirteen in number; eight of them flat and five a little curved. Of the flat ones four are large, being sometimes a foot long and seven inches broad, semi-transparent, elegantly variegated with white, red, yellow, and dark brown clouds, which are fully brought out when the shell is prepared and polished. The laminae, as I have said, constitute the external coating of the solid or bony part of the shell, and a large turtle affords about eight pounds of them, the plates varying from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness. The fishers do not kill the turtles; did they do so, they would in a few years exterminate them. When a turtle is caught, they fasten him, and cover his back with dry leaves or grass, to which they set fire. The heat causes the plates to separate at their joints; a large knife is then carefully inserted horizontally beneath them, and the laminae lifted from the back, care being taken not to injure the shell by too much heat, nor to force it off until the heat has fully prepared it for separation. Many turtles die under this cruel operation, but instances are numerous in which they have been caught a second time, with the outer coating reproduced; but, in these cases, instead of thirteen pieces, it is a single piece.

Frank Leslie's Weekly, Manufacture of Combs, March 1858

It is said that the greatest comb manufactory in the world is in Aberdeen, Scotland. There are thirty-six furnaces for preparing horns andtortoise -shell for the combs, and no less than one hundred and twenty iron screw presses are continually going in stamping them. Steam power is employed to cut the combs. The coarse combs are stamped or cut out—two being cut in one piece at a time. The fine dressing combs, and all small tooth combs, are cut by fine circular saws, some so fine as to cut forty teeth in the space of one inch, and they revolve five thousand times in one minute. There are some two thousand varieties of combs made, and the aggregate number produced of all these different sorts of combs is about 9,000,000 annually; a quantity that, if laid together lengthways, would extend about seven hundred miles. The annual consumption of ox horns is about 730,000, and the annual consumption of hoofs amounts to 4,000,000; the consumption oftortoise shell and buffalo horn, although not so large, is correspondingly valuable. A hoof undergoes eleven distinct operations before it becomes a finished comb.

Godey's Lady's Book, Chitchat Upon Fashions for November, 1862
The new style for dressing the hair is a short rolled bandeau, which is generally waved. Upon this there is arranged a second bandeau turned back a La Imperatrice, and the two are separated by small side combs, which are now all the rage. Plaits and puffs are also arranged with these combs, which are made in endless variety, and give an air of piquant coquetterie to the head. When worn in the daytime, these small combs are made of light tortoise shell, either with a row of small pearls, also in shell, very closely ranged together, or cut out in clubs, points, or hearts. For the evening they are made of dead gold, either quite plain or studded with pearl, coral, steel, gilt, or even precious stones, according to the toilet with which they are worn. Sometimes the Greek design is worked in black enamel upon the dead gold. The comb at the back should correspond exactly with the side combs. Ivory combs are still worn, also shell with ivory ball tops. Among the prettiest shell are some with ball tops studded with tiny gilt stars.

Godey's Lady's Book, Chitchat Upon Fashions for February, 1863
Tortoise shell is being worked in much more elaborate designs than formerly. The bow combs are very tasteful, and we see whole sets, consisting of combs, dress and sleeve-buttons, pins, earrings, and buckles to match, made of shell, onyx, marquisite, and enamel. The rage at present is for initials, and we see a delicate Grecian border in gilt or shell, with a large gilt initial in the centre; the same design is in marquisite (a fine steel) on onyx. The sleeve-buttons are all made as in Fig. 1 of our Fashion-plate, one large button, with the two small fastenings underneath. Initial buttons are made to order in ivory or colored bone; but the other styles are, we believe, all imported. The more expensive sets have the initials in diamonds; others have a black initial on a dead gold ground. We have seen a number of sets tastefully enamelled on copper, and set round with the tiniest of steel brilliants, which have the effect of diamonds.

Godey's Lady's Book, Chitchat Upon Fashions for February, 1864
A novelty has just appeared in the way of combs. They are of tortoise -shell, highly ornamented with raised devices of various kinds, some having luxurious bunches of grapes and foliage, or sprays of ivy, with its berries. Another new comb is a kind of long geld clasp, ornamented in great variety of style, and exceedingly pretty, for the present styles of coiffure.

While not every reference to tortoise shell mentioned piqué, based on my other evidence, much of it could have been worked with gold inlay. I did not include other quotes, in which I discovered that eyeglasses, book covers, tables, and even musical instruments were made of the shell. No wonder we almost pushed them to extinction!

Surviving Originals
My first experience with piqué was on Pinterest. I marveled at the pretty little designs, the intricate style that doesn't exist today. After gathering the research for this post, it is safe to say that I am an addict!

In my textual documentation, I found so much evidence that combs were commonly used with piqué. Why does it seem that more jewelry survived, rather than combs? My assumption is that they were chipped or broken over time, while the jewelry would have been stashed in a box. Please let me know if you have any other conclusions! In any case, it is all absolutely gorgeous.

My Reproductions
So piqué work on tortoise shell rose to popularity during the 19th century, and I have seen zero representations (okay, maybe an antique comb here or there). My reader should know me by now! I like to make the previously marginalized front and center, and would love more variety in jewelry for reenactors. We shouldn't all be wearing the same thing! I got to work right away, trading the endangered tortoise shell for onyx, jet, or glass. Here is the fruit of my labor:

These are all worked with 18k gold pen, covered with a light adhesive to seal the gold. The comb is plastic, but it is so *close* that I was willing to make that exchange. Just the three pieces took several weeks, as the gold is testy and even my steady hands created errors. They are all available in my shop too! You can "peek" online at The Victorian Needle

Between the research, blog writing, and actual creation of the jewelry, I can say now that I am officially over piqué...just kidding! I want to make myself an entire set before this summer! 

Ah, my never-ending prowl through the 19th century!


Monday, February 9, 2015

Craft Show FAIL

So this past weekend I did a craft show at a Victorian Tea in Michigan. I attended in my 19th century gear, the set up preparing for the Kalamazoo living history show that I have been accepted to as a vendor. I knew this would be a learning experience. After all, I would not be selling to reenactors. Boy was I right!
Pictured: A life lesson

Let me begin with my sickness. Thursday morning I went to work, normal. Students had cabin fever, weather was icky. By late afternoon I developed a throbbing headache, and needless to say...I had a fever of my own. I took Friday off work and hobbled around the house, attempting to finishing pricing or loading. The fever broke Friday; Saturday I did not feel sick, only very very tired.
And for some reason, very hungry...

Getting ready was a chore. I generally have my routine down to about 30 minutes of hair and dressing. Since my arms were so limp, that took more time. I ended up leaving later than I wanted to, but with over an hour of setup for my table. We'll get to that in a second.

When I arrived, I noted that my table was *smaller* than I thought it would be. I was told 36 inches and...nope. That's ok! I did some finagling. My fellow booth members were fun, and I noted that most people had a partner to help with setup. And me? I made sure to sit down plenty. (In the meantime, I found out that I had accidentally wrinkled my sign). My last finishing touches went up as the first customers started streaming in. I had a few sales in the beginning! All was well!

And then all wasn't well. The host organization had promised "savory" vendors, and all they had were cookies/chips. My idiot self didn't pack anything. I would have started crying at that point, but I didn't want to muss up my pretty face. If you are someone who knows me personally, you would know how central food is to my being. It's the headache, blood sugar...
Hence the many pictures of me eating

So I went on speaking with the wonderful customers and vendors on a steady diet of chips and cookies, the first real food I'd had in two days. Feeling better still, just tired. People liked my setup, adored my little historical tidbits, and raved about my dress. If there's one thing I'm good at, it's teaching! Hours went by, and I saw less people than I expected to see shopping around.

Suddenly I look up...and it's over. I talked to maybe a few dozen people with few sales. It was certainly a learning experience, as my shop has been getting quite a bit of attention from reenactors. It felt like a step back from my current path, as if the universe was telling me to stop. These thoughts bothered me throughout tear down, as well as the drive home. Here are a few of my conclusions:

1.  A coral cross/earring set might be *perfect* for reenactors, but my modern crowd probably doesn't understand the research put into finding that historically accurate piece. So I did not pick a particularly good place to sell my wares. I knew this going into it.

2. Food. Dear goodness that was awful.

3. Setup price-too high for such a short time and small space. Cramped!

4. I think less people attended this year than last. I didn't see anywhere near 450 people walking around throughout the entire day.

5. Recovering from an illness while doing a craft show is terrible even if one looks fabulous.

Learning Tools
1. I learned EVERYTHING about how to pack things well into one tupperware bin. I now have a system for the Kalamazoo show next month. Kristen has just unlocked the tetris level!

2. It takes about an hour and a half for a setup. That information alone was worth the experience.

3. Also, ALWAYS pack snacks. Even if they say they're going to have food.

4. Wear sensible shoes. I wore my orthopedic work shoes that are a simple pair of black flats. Not the most period accurate, but goodness my back did not ache.

5. I met so many amazing people! They were kind and thoughtful. I helped one man fix his phone's credit card app. One woman offered me carrots and crackers amidst my suffering. Such amazing moments with complete strangers. I also displayed my antique clothing dating skills to Leah of Leah's Closet in Royal Oak. She had a fabulous wrapper for sale, and it took everything in me not to buy it!

6. Really get to know the audience. People didn't really look at my jewelry; they were fascinated by my Lincoln mourning ribbons. If I were to do this again, I would include more items of commonly known historical significance.

7. The lack of sales don't reflect a lack of effort/good stuff on my part. From what I see, craft shows are sort of a gamble. However, from this point on I may just stick to reenactments/historical events.

I debated whether or not to share this experience with the world. Throughout the day I had family and friends calling, and I was hesitant to share my lack of success. Like I had committed some terrible offense by not being awesome at this thing the first time I did it. There's that type A in me again!

That is perhaps my biggest lesson to myself and everyone with this post. Even the most experienced people make mistakes. It's like the third dress that you made that still doesn't have the sleeves set right (guilty). Or that time you forgot your hoop and had to drive home to fetch it (guilty). Your significant other might even remind you of the time you accidentally left a few pins in his pair of pants (soooo guilty). To err is human.

Learning is a lifelong thing. I am as proud of these mistakes as I am of the lessons they gave me. And sharing them is important too; please try things, and don't be discouraged by setbacks. Sometimes great things come from seemingly pointless endeavors.

I certainly had moments of doubt, calling my father to ask for his opinion. He said it best as I lay writhing in bed, contemplating whether I would have enough strength to do my show:
You're the only person who can get your s*** done.
Thanks Dad. Another lesson in my toolbox!


Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day. For some it's a day to share joy about that powerful emotion that is love. My personal favorite title: Singles Awareness Day (aka SAD). No matter your attitude, it's hard to miss the bright red dotting every store window. I love that bouquet of roses my fiance gives me every year! It's just another one of those loving gestures...
The way to a woman's heart is her stomach

For those of you who usually enjoy my resource collecting/style, this post should fulfill that need. I don't really need to prove that Valentine's Day existed. Rather, I'd like to give little tidbits about the celebration that could be helpful when trying to add it to an impression. Other blogs/posts have been quite informative, so I'll reference them when possible.

History of Valentine's Day
We're going waaaay back. The exact origins are not precise, as they have roots in both the Roman holiday Lupercalia and stories of three martyred Christians going by the same name. A healthy, pagan blend of religions? Probably. Regardless of truth, a link to romance is present in them all. England and France especially took to the holiday, and in the 15th century the first documented Valentine’s card came to be.

Yet the tradition took a bit longer to become popular in the United States, specifically by the mid 19th century. A girl named Esther Howland, whose father worked in a stationary factory, wished to replicate a beautiful English Valentine. He supplied her with the proper paper and colors and the result was an instant success. Orders started pouring in, and in 1862 a company in New York alone order $30,000 worth from Esther and her father. During the war they became wildly popular, using pinks, reds, and lacy paper. It seemed that everyone wanted to celebrate!

So from then on, Americans were hooked. This woman is the reason why I receive cheesy Spongebob cards and endure the mountains of candy that end up on my desk. My stomach thanks you, dear Esther, but my diet does not!

Photographic Documentation
Whilst looking for photos, I mostly found drawings/engravings. These would be the exception to that, and oh aren't they just scrumptious? Can someone recreate these please?

These are obviously posed, but even in that we see the 19th century attitude towards Valentine's Day. Fun, playful, slightly naughty? Secret notes between lovers? The body language of the woman in the first betrays her coquettish nature, an encouraged trait on this day. I like to think that even the most matronly Queen Victoria would have cracked an impish smile at such images.

Textual Documentation

Here I had a treasure trove of images and text. Short stories, poems, drawings, all revealing so much about the celebration of love. Sometimes they were a bit...morbid? My modern sensibilities are often surprised by these little research adventures.

Saint Valentine's Day, Godey's Lady's Book, February 1861
VALENTINE' S day in my grandfather's time; it was something worth looking forward to then; you should hear the old gentleman talk about it. The ice of many a courtship was broken; the heart of many a maiden won through the medium of those emblematic pictures and flattering rhymes sent on that licensed morn. Young men— my grandfather among the number— were known never to have retired to rest at all, but to have spent the night previous under their mistresses' window, for the purpose of gaining her first glance in the morning, and thus, according to the old superstition, have the right of being her Valentine for the rest of the day , or, what was perhaps still more important, her husband for life. Young girls, in order to avoid the sight of a disagreeable suitor, would shut themselves up for the entire morning; others, by various clever stratagems— peeping through little friendly holes in the window curtains; sitting with their eyes shut for hours, until they heard the wished- for step or well-beloved voice— endeavored to take in destiny, and cheat the fates! Postmen were known to have fainted beneath the weight of Cupids, doves, Hymen's temples, and gold rings their bursting bags contained. One misanthropic man of letters committed suicide on Valentine' s eve by throwing himself, bag and all; into a river near my grandfather's house, leaving a note on the bank stating his reasons for the act: hatred to marriage, and a desire to save his fellow-creatures from that misery, as the wooer on the fourteenth of February was generally a fool by the first of April.

But Valentine' s day in the nineteenth century— the sober, intellectual, satirical, nineteenth century— is a very different affair. “These are the days of advance.” In our onward march of civilization we have trampled the Maypole under our feet, dethroned its pretty queen, and turned Cupid out of doors. “Strong-minded young ladies” sneer at such “senseless things,” and youth itself will soon be as much out of fashion as the rest. But yet, with all these disadvantages to battle against, Valentine' s day , although the mere ghost of its former self, still continues to have its old “match-making” propensities; truth still lurks in those annual rhymes, and many a proposal those love lines have contained has ended in smiles and blushes, wedding favors, and bride-cake at Whitsuntide.

St. Valentines, Day, Godey's Lady's Book, February 1864

St. Valentine's Day, Godey's Lady's Book, February 1865

Surviving Originals
If I lived during that time, I could imagine myself receiving a valentine from a loved one, possibly away at war. Whether he lived or died, I would cherish that little bit of paper. I'm also the 21st century girl who saved flowers from a boy in middle school, and they can still be found pressed in between the pages of my old journal. Sentimentality was at a feverishly high pitch at this time, so it's no wonder we have so many surviving originals. I could have included dozens more, but seriously people. I need some me time.

At this moment I let my imagination take over. I am that woman in 1862, thinking of the perfect words to pen to my beloved fiance. Or perhaps he is away at war, with the flimsy piece of paper as the only reminder that he lives? The possibilities are endless! Is it just me, or do modern cards seem to lack the depth that I see here? Top that Hallmark!

Now forgive me here, because I did not take the time to make these myself. A craft show, birthday, wedding shower...this month has proven to be a formidable one. Maybe next year? In any case, interested parties can use the following sources to make their own!

If anyone makes Civil War period valentines, can you pretty please post them on here? I really wish I could do them this year, so your creativity will have to suffice!
Happy Valentine's Day!


Sources/Articles of Interest

On My Bookshelf: December

December has been a really rough month. Between what happened in Oxford (not far from where I live...) and just the general pandemic issues,...